The synagogue in Vinohrady, sometimes called the Vinohrady Temple, was built in 1895–1896 according to designs by the Viennese architect Wilhelm Stiassny (he also designed the Jubilee Synagogue, known today as the Jerusalem Synagogue, in Prague and the synagogues in Jablonec nad Nisou and Čáslav). The three-nave structure, built in Neo-Renaissance style with Moorish elements with a capacity of 2 000 people, was the largest synagogue in Prague (roughly comparable in size to St Ludmila Church on nearby Peace Square). Until the occupation, the building served as a synagogue and community center for a number of Jewish communities.
Beginning in November 1941, the synagogue served as a Treuhandstelle warehouse. This is where the belongings of deported Jews was stored, including drawings, graphics, tapestries, paintings, photographs, sewing machines, mirrors, picture frames, and bicycles. At the same time, it also housed the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt (National Socialist Charity).
The synagogue was heavily damaged during the Allied bombing on 14 February 1945; the damage to the building could have been reduced, but the German authorities did not allow the fire to be extinguished. As we can see in Sudek's photograph of the synagogue, published in the Prague Calendar 1946, the imposing facade with two towers and a huge rosette window with a star of David was almost entirely preserved. “The ruins of the Vinohrady synagogue symbolically represented the fate of the whole Jewish population in Prague; during the Protectorate only 6 percent of its members survived.”
Despite protests by the Jewish community, the building was torn down in 1951 and a primary school stands in its place today.